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π™°πšŒπšŒπš˜πš›πšπš’πš—πš 𝚝𝚘 πš˜πš—πšŽ πšŸπšŽπš›πšœπš’πš˜πš— 𝚘𝚏 π™½πš”πš πšŽπš›πš›πšŽ πšπš˜πš•πš”πš•πš˜πš›πšŽ, π™²πš‘πšžπš”πš πšž π™Ύπš”πš’πš”πšŽ, πšπš‘πšŽ πšŒπš›πšŽπšŠπšπš˜πš› πšπšŽπš’πšπš’, πšœπšŽπš—πš π™ΎπšπšŠπšπšŠπš£πšž, πšπš‘πšŽ πš™πšŠπšπš›πš˜πš— πšπšŽπš’πšπš’ 𝚘𝚏 πš’πš›πš˜πš— πšŠπš—πš πš‹πš•πšŠπšŒπš”πšœπš–πš’πšπš‘πš’πš—πš, 𝚝𝚘 πšπš‘πšŽ π™Ύπš”πš˜πšπš˜ πšπš˜πš›πšŽπšœπš πšŠπš—πš πš’πš—πšœπšπš›πšžπšŒπšπšŽπš πš‘πš’πš– 𝚝𝚘 πšπšŽπšŠπšŒπš‘ πšπš‘πšŽ πšπš’πš›πšœπš πšœπš˜πš— 𝚘𝚏 π™Ύπš”πš πšŠπš›πšŠπšŽπšœπš‘πš’ (πšπš‘πšŽ πš–πš’πšπš‘πš’πšŒπšŠπš• πšπš˜πšžπš—πšπšŽπš› 𝚘𝚏 π™½πš”πš πšŽπš›πš›πšŽ) πš‘πšŽ πš–πšŽπš πšπš‘πšŽ πšŠπš›πš 𝚘𝚏 πšœπš–πš’πšπš‘πš’πš—πš. π™½πšŠπšŒπš‘πš’, 𝚊 πš’πš˜πšžπš—πš πš–πšŠπš— πš πš‘πš˜ πš πš˜πšžπš•πš πšŽπšŸπšŽπš—πšπšžπšŠπš•πš•πš’ πš‹πšŽπšŒπš˜πš–πšŽ πšπš‘πšŽ πšπš˜πšžπš—πšπšŽπš› 𝚘𝚏 πš„πš–πšžπš—πšŠπšŒπš‘πš’, 𝚠𝚊𝚜 πšπšŠπšπš‘πšŽπš›πš’πš—πš πšπš›πšžπš’πšπšœ πš’πš— πšπš‘πšŽ πšπš˜πš›πšŽπšœπš πš πš‘πšŽπš— πš‘πšŽ πš›πšŠπš— πš’πš—πšπš˜ π™ΎπšπšŠπšπšŠπš£πšž, πš πš‘πš˜ 𝚐𝚊𝚟𝚎 πš‘πš’πš– 𝚊 πš‘πšŠπš–πš–πšŽπš›, πšŠπš— πšŠπš—πšŸπš’πš•, 𝚊 πš™πšŠπš’πš› 𝚘𝚏 πš‹πšŽπš•πš•πš˜πš πšœ, πšŠπš—πš πš’πš–πš‹πšžπšŽπš πš‘πš’πš– πš πš’πšπš‘ πš”πš—πš˜πš πš•πšŽπšπšπšŽ 𝚘𝚏 πš–πšŽπšπšŠπš•πš•πšžπš›πšπš’ πšŠπš—πš πšπš‘πšŽ πšŠπš‹πš’πš•πš’πšπš’ 𝚝𝚘 πšπš˜πš›πšπšŽ πš’πš›πš˜πš— πš˜πš›πšŽ πš’πš—πšπš˜ πš–πšŽπšπšŠπš• πš πšŠπš›πšŽπšœ.
π™ΎπšŸπšŽπš› πšπš’πš–πšŽ, πš’πš— π™½πš”πš πšŽπš›πš›πšŽ πšπš‘πšŽ πšŠπš›πš 𝚘𝚏 πšœπš–πš’πšπš‘πš’πš—πš πšπš›πšŽπš  πš’πš— πšŒπš˜πš–πš™πš•πšŽπš‘πš’πšπš’ 𝚊𝚜 πš•πš˜πšŒπšŠπš• πšπšŽπšŒπš‘πš—πš˜πš•πš˜πšπš’ πšŽπšŸπš˜πš•πšŸπšŽπš. π™Έπš— πš’πšπšœ πš™πš›πš’πš–πš’πšπš’πšŸπšŽ 𝚍𝚊𝚒𝚜, πšœπš–πš’πšπš‘πšœ πš™πš›πš˜πšπšžπšŒπšŽπš πš—πšŠπš’πš•πšœ, πš—πšŽπšŽπšπš•πšŽπšœ, πšŠπš—πš πš”πš’πšπšŒπš‘πšŽπš—πš πšŠπš›πšŽ. π™Όπš˜πš›πšŽ πšœπš”πš’πš•πš•πšŽπš πš‹πš•πšŠπšŒπš”πšœπš–πš’πšπš‘πšœ πšπš˜πš›πšπšŽπš πš›πš’πš—πšπšœ, πšŠπš–πšžπš•πšŽπšπšœ, πšŠπš—πš πš›πš’πšπšžπšŠπš• 𝚜𝚝𝚊𝚏𝚏𝚜 𝚞𝚜𝚎𝚍 πš‹πš’ π™Ύπš£πš˜ πšπš’πšπš•πšŽ-πš‘πš˜πš•πšπšŽπš›πšœ. π™°πšœ πšπš‘πšŽ πš™πš›πš˜πšπšŽπšœπšœπš’πš˜πš— πšŽπš‘πš™πšŠπš—πšπšŽπš πšŠπš—πš πš•πšŠπš›πšπšŽ πšœπš–πš’πšπš‘πš’πš—πš πšπšžπš’πš•πšπšœ πšπš˜πš›πš–πšŽπš, πš–πšŠπšœπšπšŽπš› πš‹πš•πšŠπšŒπš”πšœπš–πš’πšπš‘πšœ πš πšŽπš›πšŽ πšŠπš‹πš•πšŽ 𝚝𝚘 𝚏𝚘𝚌𝚞𝚜 πš˜πš— πšπš‘πšŽ πš™πš›πš˜πšπšžπšŒπšπš’πš˜πš— 𝚘𝚏 πš–πš˜πš›πšŽ πšœπš™πšŽπšŒπš’πšŠπš•πš’πš£πšŽπš πš’πšπšŽπš–πšœ πšœπšžπšŒπš‘ 𝚊𝚜 '𝚘𝚐𝚞' (πš‘πš˜πšŽπšœ), 'πš–πš‹πšŠπš£πšž' (𝚊 πšπš’πšπšπš’πš—πš πšπš˜πš˜πš•), 'πš—πš–πšŠ' (πš–πšŠπšŒπš‘πšŽπšπšŽπšœ), πšŠπš—πš πš˜πšπš‘πšŽπš› πšŠπšπš›πš’πšŒπšžπš•πšπšžπš›πšŠπš• πšπš˜πš˜πš•πšœ, πšπš›πš’πšŸπš’πš—πš 𝚏𝚘𝚘𝚍 πš™πš›πš˜πšπšžπšŒπšπš’πš˜πš— πšŠπš—πš πš™πš˜πš™πšžπš•πšŠπšπš’πš˜πš— πš’πš—πšŒπš›πšŽπšŠπšœπšŽ πšπš‘πš›πš˜πšžπšπš‘πš˜πšžπš π™Έπšπš‹πš˜πš•πšŠπš—πš.
π™Έπš— πšπš‘πšŽ πš–πš’πš-17πšπš‘ πšŒπšŽπš—πšπšžπš›πš’, π™½πš”πš πšŽπš›πš›πšŽ πšπš›πšŠπšπšŽπš›πšœ πš’πš— πšŒπš˜πšŠπšœπšπšŠπš• πšπš˜πš πš—πšœ πšŒπšŠπš–πšŽ πš’πš—πšπš˜ πšŒπš˜πš—πšπšŠπšŒπš πš πš’πšπš‘ π™΄πšžπš›πš˜πš™πšŽπšŠπš—πšœ πšπš‘πš›πš˜πšžπšπš‘ πš’πš—πšπšŽπš›πš–πšŽπšπš’πšŠπš›πš’πšŽπšœ πš πš‘πš˜πš– πšπš‘πšŽπš’ πšπš›πšŠπšπšŽπš πšœπš•πšŠπšŸπšŽπšœ πš’πš— πšŽπš‘πšŒπš‘πšŠπš—πšπšŽ πšπš˜πš› πšπšžπš—πšœ, πš’πš›πš˜πš— πš‹πšŠπš›πšœ, πšŠπš—πš πš–πšŠπš—πšžπšπšŠπšŒπšπšžπš›πšŽπš 𝚐𝚘𝚘𝚍𝚜.
πšƒπš‘πšŽ πšŠπšπšŸπšŽπš—πš πšŠπš—πš πš–πšŠπšœπšœ-πš™πš›πš˜πš•πš’πšπšŽπš›πšŠπšπš’πš˜πš— 𝚘𝚏 πšπš’πš›πšŽπšŠπš›πš–πšœ πš’πš—πšπš˜ πšπš‘πšŽ πš›πšŽπšπš’πš˜πš— πš›πšŽπšŸπš˜πš•πšžπšπš’πš˜πš—πš’πš£πšŽπš π™Έπšπš‹πš˜ πšœπš˜πšŒπš’πšŽπšπš’, 𝚊𝚜 πšπš‘πšŽ πšπšžπš— πššπšžπš’πšŒπš”πš•πš’ πš‹πšŽπšŒπšŠπš–πšŽ 𝚊 πšœπš’πš–πš‹πš˜πš• 𝚘𝚏 πš–πšŠπš—πš‘πš˜πš˜πš πšŠπš—πš πšŠπšπšπš•πšžπšŽπš—πšŒπšŽ.
π™½πš”πš πšŽπš›πš›πšŽ πšœπš–πš’πšπš‘πšœ πš–πš˜πš—πš˜πš™πš˜πš•πš’πš£πšŽπš πšπš‘πšŽ πšπšžπš— πšπš›πšŠπšπšŽ, 𝚊𝚜 πšπš‘πšŽπš’ πš•πšŽπšŠπš›πš—πšŽπš 𝚝𝚘 πš›πšŽπš™πšŠπš’πš› πšŠπš—πš πšŽπšŸπšŽπš— πš–πšŠπšœπšπšŽπš›πšπšžπš•πš•πš’ πš›πšŽπš™πš›πš˜πšπšžπšŒπšŽ π™΄πšžπš›πš˜πš™πšŽπšŠπš— πšπšžπš—πšœ 𝚊𝚜 πš πšŽπš•πš• 𝚊𝚜 πš—πšŠπšπš’πšŸπšŽ πšŒπšŠπš—πš—πš˜πš—πšœ, πšŽπšŠπš›πš—πš’πš—πš πšπš‘πšŽπš’πš› πšπš˜πš› πš™πšŽπš˜πš™πš•πšŽ πšπš‘πšŽ πš—πš’πšŒπš”πš—πšŠπš–πšŽ β€œπ™½πš”πš πšŽπš›πš›πšŽ π™Ύπš™πš’πšŠ π™΄πšπš‹πšŽβ€ (π™½πš”πš πšŽπš›πš›πšŽ, πšπš‘πšŽ π™Άπšžπš— π™ΌπšŠπš”πšŽπš›πšœ).
πšƒπš‘πšŽ πš’πš—πšπš•πšžπšŽπš—πšŒπšŽ 𝚘𝚏 π™½πš”πš πšŽπš›πš›πšŽ πš‹πš•πšŠπšŒπš”πšœπš–πš’πšπš‘πšœ 𝚠𝚊𝚜 πšπšŽπš•πš πšπš‘πš›πš˜πšžπšπš‘πš˜πšžπš πš πš‘πšŠπš πš’πšœ πš—πš˜πš  πšŽπšŠπšœπšπšŽπš›πš— π™½πš’πšπšŽπš›πš’πšŠ πšŠπš—πš 𝚊𝚜 πšπšŠπš› 𝚊𝚠𝚊𝚒 𝚊𝚜 πšπš‘πšŽ π™±πš’πš—πš’ π™΄πš–πš™πš’πš›πšŽ πšŠπš—πš πš˜πš—πš•πš’ πš‹πšŽπšπšŠπš— 𝚝𝚘 πš πšŠπš—πšŽ 𝚊𝚜 πšπš‘πšŽ π™±πš›πš’πšπš’πšœπš‘ πš™πšžπšœπš‘πšŽπš πšπšŽπšŽπš™πšŽπš› πš’πš—πšπš˜ πšπš‘πšŽ πš‘πš’πš—πšπšŽπš›πš•πšŠπš—πš πš’πš— πšπš‘πšŽ πš•πšŠπšπšŽ 19πšπš‘ πšŒπšŽπš—πšπšžπš›πš’.
π™°πšπšπšŽπš–πš™πšπš’πš—πš 𝚝𝚘 πšŒπš›πš’πš™πš™πš•πšŽ πš—πšŠπšπš’πšŸπšŽ πš–πšŠπš—πšžπšπšŠπšŒπšπšžπš›πš’πš—πš πš’πš—πšπšžπšœπšπš›πš’πšŽπšœ, πšπš‘πšŽ π™±πš›πš’πšπš’πšœπš‘ πšπš•πš˜πš˜πšπšŽπš πšπš‘πšŽ πš›πšŽπšπš’πš˜πš— πš πš’πšπš‘ πšŒπš‘πšŽπšŠπš™, πšπš˜πš›πšŽπš’πšπš— πš–πšŽπšπšŠπš•πš πšŠπš›πšŽ πšŠπš—πš 𝚐𝚘𝚘𝚍𝚜 πšŠπš—πš πš™πš•πšŠπšŒπšŽπš πšœπšŽπšŸπšŽπš›πšŠπš• πš›πšŽπšœπšπš›πš’πšŒπšπš’πš˜πš—πšœ πš˜πš— πšπš‘πšŽ πš—πšŠπšπš’πšŸπšŽ πšπš’πš›πšŽπšŠπš›πš– πš’πš—πšπšžπšœπšπš›πš’.
π™Έπš— 1901, πšπš‘πšŽ π™±πš›πš’πšπš’πšœπš‘ π™·πš’πšπš‘ π™²πš˜πš–πš–πš’πšœπšœπš’πš˜πš—πšŽπš› 𝙷.𝙻. π™ΆπšŠπš•πš•πš˜πš πšŠπš’ πš™πš›πš˜πš‘πš’πš‹πš’πšπšŽπš πšπš‘πšŽ πš˜πšžπšπš›πš’πšπš‘πš πšœπšŠπš•πšŽ 𝚘𝚏 πšŠπš›πš–πšœ πšŠπš—πš πšŠπš–πš–πšžπš—πš’πšπš’πš˜πš—πšœ πš’πš— πšπš‘πšŽ πšŠπš›πšŽπšŠ πšžπš—πšπšŽπš› πš‘πš’πšœ πš“πšžπš›πš’πšœπšπš’πšŒπšπš’πš˜πš—. π™΅πš˜πš•πš•πš˜πš πš’πš—πš πšπš‘πšŽ πš‹πšŠπš—, πš’πš— π™½πš”πš πšŽπš›πš›πšŽ, πšπš‘πšŽ π™°πšπš–πš’πš—πš’πšœπšπš›πšŠπšπš’πš˜πš— πš˜πš›πšπšŽπš›πšŽπš πšπš‘πšŽ πšœπšžπš›πš›πšŽπš—πšπšŽπš› 𝚘𝚏 πšŠπš•πš• πšπš’πš›πšŽπšŠπš›πš–πšœ 𝚊𝚝 πšπš‘πšŽ π™΄πš”πšŽ π™°πšπš‘πšŠ πš–πšŠπš›πš”πšŽπš πšœπššπšžπšŠπš›πšŽ, πšŠπš—πš πš πš’πšπš‘πš’πš— πšπš‘πšŽ πš™πšŽπš›πš’πš˜πš 𝚘𝚏 πš˜πš—πšŽ πš–πš˜πš—πšπš‘, πš‘πšžπš—πšπš›πšŽπšπšœ 𝚘𝚏 πšπš’πš›πšŽπšŠπš›πš–πšœ πš πšŽπš›πšŽ πšπšŽπšœπšπš›πš˜πš’πšŽπš, πšπšŽπšŠπš•πš’πš—πš 𝚊 πšπš›πšŽπš–πšŽπš—πšπš˜πšžπšœ πš‹πš•πš˜πš  𝚝𝚘 πšπš‘πšŽ πš’πš—πšœπšπš’πšπšžπšπš’πš˜πš—πšŠπš•πš’πš£πšŽπš πš™πš›πš’πšπšŽ 𝚘𝚏 π™½πš”πš πšŽπš›πš›πšŽ.
π™²πš‘πš›πš’πšœπšπš’πšŠπš— πš–πš’πšœπšœπš’πš˜πš—πšŠπš›πš’πšŽπšœ πšπšžπš›πšπš‘πšŽπš› πšŒπš˜πš—πšπš›πš’πš‹πšžπšπšŽπš 𝚝𝚘 πšπš‘πšŽ πšπšŽπšŒπš•πš’πš—πšŽ 𝚘𝚏 πš‹πš•πšŠπšŒπš”πšœπš–πš’πšπš‘πš’πš—πš πš’πš— π™½πš”πš πšŽπš›πš›πšŽ, 𝚊𝚜 πšπš‘πšŽπš’ πš˜πš™πš™πš˜πšœπšŽπš πšπš‘πšŽ πš›πš’πšπšžπšŠπš•πšœ πšŠπš—πš πšŒπšžπšœπšπš˜πš–πšœ πš πš‘πš’πšŒπš‘ πš πšŽπš›πšŽ πšŠπš— πš’πš—πšπšŽπšπš›πšŠπš• πšŒπš˜πš–πš™πš˜πš—πšŽπš—πš 𝚘𝚏 πšπš‘πšŽ πš™πš›πš˜πšπšŽπšœπšœπš’πš˜πš—. π™³πšŽπšœπš™πš’πšπšŽ 𝚊 πš‹πš›πš’πšŽπš πš›πšŽπšœπšžπš›πšπšŽπš—πšŒπšŽ πšπšžπš›πš’πš—πš πšπš‘πšŽ π™²πš’πšŸπš’πš• πš†πšŠπš›, πšπš˜πš› πš–πš˜πšœπš 𝚘𝚏 πšπš‘πšŽ 20πšπš‘ πšŒπšŽπš—πšπšžπš›πš’ πš˜πšžπšπš›πš’πšπš‘πš πš—πšŽπšπš•πšŽπšŒπš 𝚘𝚏 πš’πš—πšπš’πšπšŽπš—πš˜πšžπšœ πšπšŽπšŒπš‘πš—πš˜πš•πš˜πšπš’ πšŠπš—πš πš–πšŠπš—πšžπšπšŠπšŒπšπšžπš›πš’πš—πš πš’πš—πšπšžπšœπšπš›πš’πšŽπšœ πš‘πšŠπšŸπšŽ πš•πšŽπš 𝚝𝚘 πšπš‘πšŽ πšπšŽπš™πš•πš˜πš›πšŠπš‹πš•πšŽ 𝚜𝚝𝚊𝚝𝚎 𝚘𝚏 πšœπš–πš’πšπš‘πš’πš—πš πš’πš— πš–πš˜πšπšŽπš›πš—-𝚍𝚊𝚒 π™½πš”πš πšŽπš›πš›πšŽ. πšπšŽπšπš˜πš›πš– πš’πš— πšœπš˜πšŒπš’πšŽπšπšŠπš• πšŠπšπšπš’πšπšžπšπšŽπšœ πšπš˜πš πšŠπš›πšπšœ πš’πš—πšπš’πšπšŽπš—πš˜πšžπšœ πš’πš—πšπšžπšœπšπš›πš’πšŽπšœ πš πš˜πšžπš•πš πšπš›πš’πšŸπšŽ 𝚊 πš–πšžπšŒπš‘-πš—πšŽπšŽπšπšŽπš πš›πšŽπšŸπš’πšŸπšŠπš• πš’πš— πš•πš˜πšŒπšŠπš• πšπš›πšŠπšπšŽπšœ, πš πš‘πš’πšŒπš‘ πš–πšŠπš’ πš™πšŽπš›πš‘πšŠπš™πšœ πš‹πšŽ πšπš‘πšŽ πšœπš˜πš•πšžπšπš’πš˜πš— 𝚝𝚘 πšŒπš˜πš—πšπšŽπš–πš™πš˜πš›πšŠπš›πš’ πšŽπšŒπš˜πš—πš˜πš–πš’πšŒ πš’πšœπšœπšžπšŽπšœ.
Photo :Nkwere men ,1910.C

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